An oscillator produces narrow pulses (oscillator set to 1MHz, Div10 for pulses), which are input into the transmission line. The scope is triggered on the initial pulse, and the pulse is displayed on the top trace of the dual trace scope as it enters the transmission line and as it returns. The pulse at the end of the transmission line may be displayed on the bottom trace if desired.
For a short section of transmission line the input and output pulses almost line up. Using about 100 feet of transmission line the delay is approximately 150 ns; for the test cable v/c was approximately 0.67 so the wave time is about 1.5 nanosecond per foot.
To see reflections, use only the top trace. The far end can be left open, shorted, or terminated with a 50 ohm terminator to prevent reflection, as shown in the center two photographs above.
The photographs below these two show the oscilloscope showing the 10 MHz pulse train (left), reflections with the far end of the cable connected to the lower trace of the oscilloscope, with the horizontal scale 250 nanoseconds per division (left center) and 100 nanosecond per division (center), the far end terminated by 50 ohms (right center), and the far end shorted but not connected to the oscilloscope (right).
This demonstration makes an excellent companion to K8-04: Speed of Light which uses a similar technique to time a light pulse reflecting in air.