• This new simulation from the PhET collection illustrates band structure and how this affects the conductivity of materials. You can modify the potential configuration and apply an external field.


  • The PhET collection also has two additional simulations of conductor and semiconductor samples. These are not always reliable on newer browsers, so test them before using; but they are included here for completeness.




  • After exploring solids, compare this additional simulation of conductivity in liquids. “Shake” the salt or sugar shakers with your mouse to add them to the solution, and drag in the circuit to see of electricity flows. A second tab shows what’s happening at the molecular level.